The objective of this study is to determine if early high volume intravenous fluid administration (hyperhydration) may be effective in mitigating or preventing complications of shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infection in children and adolescents when compared with traditional approaches (conservative fluid management).
Hyperhydration to Improve Kidney Outcomes in Children With Shiga Toxin-Producing E. Coli Infection: A Multinational Embedded Cluster Crossover Randomized Trial
The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most serious complication of high-risk Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection and the most common cause of acquired acute kidney injury in otherwise healthy children. HUS develops in up to 20% of children following STEC infection, 60% of whom require temporary renal replacement therapy (RRT); an additional 50% develop serious extrarenal complications. Although mortality from acute HUS is low (1-3%), it has remained constant for three decades and approximately 30% of HUS survivors experience long-term sequelae, chiefly chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and diabetes. There have been only three relatively small, randomized trials to prevent progression to HUS and/or to reduce kidney injury once HUS is established; none have demonstrated benefits, and none have been performed since 1999.
Recent cohort studies suggest that early intravascular volume expansion (hyperhydration) in STEC infected children could be nephroprotective if and when HUS occurs. However, more evidence is needed before hyperhydration supplants traditional 'wait and see' (i.e., conservative fluid management) reactive care approaches which focus on outpatient care and minimizing intravenous fluid administration to avoid fluid overload in children who do develop HUS. Here, we will confirm or refute the hypothesis that aggressive volume expansion, administered early in STEC infected children, is associated with better renal outcomes and fewer adverse events than conservative management by accomplishing three Specific Aims: (1) Determine the effectiveness of hyperhydration in decreasing the prevalence of Major Adverse Kidney Events by 30 days (defined as death, RRT, or sustained loss of kidney function at 30 days) in STEC-infected children versus conservative fluid management; (2) Determine the effectiveness and safety of hyperhydration in decreasing HUS and life-threatening, extrarenal complications in STEC-infected children versus conservative fluid management; (3) Create a biorepository that will be linked to our clinical data to identify prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in STEC-infected children.