Early ART to Limit Infection and Establishment of Reservoir
a study on HIV/AIDS
The study was done to:
- Start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in those recently or acutely infected with HIV-1
- See how starting ART as soon as the infection is found affects the amount of HIV-1 in blood and how well the body fights the HIV-1 infection
- Look at the amount of HIV-1 DNA (genetic material for HIV-1) seen in CD4+ T-cells (infection-fighting cells in blood) after 48 weeks of ART
- See how early treatment for HIV affects the numbers of HIV-1 infection fighting cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in blood
Effect of Antiretroviral Treatment Initiated During Acute HIV-1 Infection on Measures of HIV-1 Persistence and on HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses
This was a Phase II, prospective, open-label two-step study to measure the effects of early ART on the establishment of HIV-1 reservoir and HIV-1-specific immunity. Participants were enrolled if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) diagnosis within 7 days prior to entry and had an enrollment visit with the immediate initiation of ART. Plasma and serum samples for Fiebig staging were collected at the time of ART initiation.
Participants were followed for up to 216 weeks (72 weeks on Step 1 and 144 weeks on Step 2). Evaluations at weeks 2 and 8 on Step 1 were performed via telephone.
The Fiebig stage-classification system was used to characterize the progression from HIV-1 exposure to HIV-1 seroconversion at the time of ART initiation. In this study, the five Fiebig stages of interest were simplified into three study groups as described below (based on HIV-1 antibody diagnostic profile at time of ART initiation).
The primary analysis was based on Step 1. Step 2 was added to the study for long term follow-up. The rationale for the extended follow-up period was to expand the number of available participants for future therapeutic and cure studies without the burden of frequent visits and the cost of study-provided laboratory testing.
Group 1: Fiebig I/II (non-reactive HIV-1 antibody)
Group 2: Fiebig III/IV (reactive HIV-1 antibody and negative or indeterminate results on the Western Blot (WB) or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2)
Group 3: Fiebig V (reactive HIV-1 antibody and positive WB or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 without p31 band)
Although participants in Fiebig VI (positive WB or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 with p31 band) were not specifically targeted for enrollment in this study, it was possible that a small number of participants would be determined to be in Fiebig VI (positive Western blot or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 with p31 band) based on analysis of the entry samples. Participants who were determined to be in Fiebig VI were followed on the study for no more than 24 weeks on Step 1, allowing ample time for them to pursue alternative sources for ART. Enrolled participants without HIV or in Fiebig VI were replaced.
The study-provided regimen was single tablet regimen elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF) or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF). Other non-study-provided antiretroviral (ARV) regimens were also allowed for participants who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or unable/unwilling to take EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or BIC/FTC/TAF, or for participants whose local health care/primary care provider preferred starting a different initial ARV regimen.
HIV-1 Infection, Infections, Communicable Diseases, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination Emtricitabine, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine tenofovir alafenamide, Elvitegravir, Anti-Retroviral Agents, elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or other medically-appropriate FDA-approved antiretroviral therapy, Fiebig I/II, Fiebig III/IV, Fiebig V
You can join if…
Open to people ages 18 years and up
Appropriate documentation from medical records of diagnosis of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) within 7 days prior to enrollment, that includes one of the following:
- A detectable HIV-1 RNA within 28 days prior to study entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry OR
- A detectable HIV-1 RNA or a reactive HIV-1 antibody within 28 days prior to study entry AND a negative/indeterminate WB or negative/indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Supplemental Assay within 7 days prior to entry OR
- A documented non-reactive HIV-1 antibody or negative HIV-1 RNA within 90 days prior to study entry AND a documented reactive HIV-1 antibody or positive WB that is negative for p31 band or a positive Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Supplemental Assay that is negative for p31 band within 7 days prior to entry OR
- ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO ≥10 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry OR
- ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO ≥1 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry AND a known prior S/CO <0.5 within 90 days prior to entry OR
- ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO >0.5 but <10 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry AND detectable HIV-1 RNA within 7 days prior to entry
Note A: HIV-1 RNA result must be reported from an FDA-approved or CE-marked assay.
Note B: Since characterization of Fiebig stage using samples at the time of ART initiation was performed with results known within 12 weeks based on standardized, centralized testing, an estimated Fiebig group at enrollment based on inclusion criteria as shown in the table above will provide additional real-time monitoring for accruals into each study group.
- Ability and willingness of candidate to provide written informed consent.
- Ability and willingness to initiate ART at enrollment.
- Ability and willingness to participate in scheduled study visits for up to 72 weeks.
- Female candidates of reproductive potential who are not pregnant at the time of enrollment and who will receive the study-provided EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF and must agree not to participate in the conception process (ie, active attempt to become pregnant, in vitro fertilization), and if participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, the female candidate must agree to use at least one reliable form of contraceptive while receiving study-provided treatment.
Female candidates are considered to be of reproductive potential if any of the following conditions apply:
- Candidate has experienced menarche.
- Candidate has not undergone bilateral tubal ligation, bilateral oophorectomy, or hysterectomy.
- Candidate has not experienced menopause, defined as lack of menstruation within the preceding 12 months.
Acceptable contraceptive methods include:
- Condoms (male or female) with or without a spermicidal agent
- Diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide
- Intrauterine device
- Hormonal contraceptive
Female candidates who are not of reproductive potential or whose male partner(s) has documented azoospermia are not required to use contraceptives. Any statement of self-reported sterility or that of her partner must be entered in the source documents.
NOTE: Acceptable documentation of lack of reproductive potential is oral or written documentation from the individual.
Female candidates who are prescribed a non-study-provided ARV regimen should discuss the safety of that regimen during conception and pregnancy with the prescribing physician. Such individuals should follow medical guidance regarding any potential need for contraception while using the non-study-provided ARV regimen.
Note: Pregnant and breastfeeding women may enroll in the study provided that they meet the eligibility requirements and have access to non-study-provided ARV regimens.
You CAN'T join if...
- Positive HIV-1 antibody test ≥90 days prior to study entry.
- Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
- Any acute, chronic, or recent and clinically significant medical condition that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements or jeopardize the safety or rights of the participant.
- Receipt of an investigational study agent within 28 days prior to enrollment
- Chronic or recurrent use of medications that modify host immune response, eg, oral or parenteral steroids, cancer chemotherapy.
- AHI diagnosis within 60 days after receiving any investigational ARV or HIV-1 vaccine or immune prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection.
- Use of ARVs for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis within 60 days prior to the diagnosis of AHI.
- Ucsd, Avrc Crs (701)
San Diego California 92103 United States
- Harbor-UCLA Med. Ctr. CRS (603)
Torrance California 90502 United States
- in progress, not accepting new patients
- Start Date
- Completion Date
- AIDS Clinical Trials Group
- The Division of AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS AE Grading Table), Version 2.1, July 2017 Manual for Expedited Reporting of Adverse Events to DAIDS (DAIDS EAE Manual), Version 2.0, January 2010
- Phase 2 HIV/AIDS Research Study
- Study Type
- About 195 people participating
- Last Updated