for people ages 18 years and up (full criteria)
at San Diego, California and other locations
study started
completion around



Objectives of this study are to determine whether active VNS Therapy treatment is superior to a no stimulation control in producing a reduction in baseline depressive symptom severity, based on multiple depression scale assessment tools at 12 months from randomization.


A prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled, blinded trial of subjects implanted with VNS Therapy. Active treatment and no stimulation control are randomized, at least two weeks after implantation and observed for 12-months.

After completing the 12 month endpoint in the RCT portion of the study, all RECOVER subjects will transition into the prospective, open-label, longitudinal portion of the study. Subjects in the control arm of RECOVER will be activated after completing the 12 month endpoint.

After completion of enrollment in the RCT portion or meeting of interim success criterion (whichever comes first), up to 5,800 new subjects may enroll directly into the open-label,prospective, longitudinal study. These subjects will participate in the study for approximately 5 years.

The study has been designed in accordance with The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage with evidence development (CED) decision entitled "Decision Memo for Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) (CAG-00313R2).


Treatment Resistant Depression, VNS, Depression, TRD, Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant Depressive Disorder, Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18 years and up

The patient must be in a major depressive disorder (MDD) episode for ≥ two years or have had at least four episodes of MDD, including the current episode.

The patient's depressive illness meets a minimum criterion of four prior failed treatments of adequate dose and duration as measured by a tool designed for this purpose.

The patient is experiencing a major depressive episode (MDE) as measured by a guideline recommended depression scale assessment tool on two visits, within a 45-day span prior to implantation of the VNS device.

Patients must maintain a stable medication regimen for at least four weeks before device implantation.

You CAN'T join if...

Current or lifetime history of psychotic features in any MDE;

Current or lifetime history of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder;

Current or lifetime history of any other psychotic disorder;

Current or lifetime history of rapid cycling bipolar disorder;

Current secondary diagnosis of delirium, dementia, amnesia, or other cognitive disorder;

Current suicidal intent; or

Treatment with another investigational device or investigational drugs.


  • University of California San Diego in progress, not accepting new patients
    San Diego California 92103 United States
  • Kaizen Brain Center accepting new patients
    La Jolla California 92037 United States
  • ATP Clinical Research, Inc. accepting new patients
    Costa Mesa California 92626 United States
  • Syrentis Clinical Research withdrawn
    Santa Ana California 92705 United States


accepting new patients at some sites,
but this study is not currently recruiting here
Start Date
Completion Date
CMS Decision Memo for Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Treatment Resistant Depression
Study Type
Expecting 6800 study participants
Last Updated